The fresh new stethoscope diaphragm (D) and you may bell (B) was basically divided in to several equal parts together with very first samples (labelled S

In order to assess the knowledge and cleaning practices regarding the disinfection of stethoscopes, the healthcare personnel were administered a questionnaire at the same visit while collecting samples from their stethoscopes. 0D and S0B, respectively) were collected using sterile swabs moistened with sterile saline from one half of the stethoscope to document the baseline microbial load on the diaphragm. The stethoscope was then cleaned by alcohol-based disinfectant (Sterillium), commonly used as hand disinfectant in the hospitals. After cleaning and allowing the stethoscope to dry for 30 s, two samples were further collected using sterile swabs (labelled S1D and S1B) from the other half of the stethoscope’s diaphragm and bell. This division of the stethoscope into two parts was done to obviate the effect of physical removal of microbes by the first swab, thereby affecting the assessment of reduction in microbial load after cleaning, if any. In order to eliminate confusion and maintain uniformity, one of the researchers collected the samples from the stethoscopes whereas another researcher cleaned the stethoscope and administered the questionnaire.

This finding is statistically significant with P < 0

Both swabs have been branded to your time and date away from range also the health-related section of works of the new member. The participants was in fact tasked a different identification count. The fresh accumulated products were quickly moved for the microbiology laboratory and you may have been cultured on Nutrient agar average and incubated to have 24 h on 37 °C . Character of the isolates is accomplished by Gram stain and you may fundamental biochemical evaluating (Catalase test, Coagulase try, Indole sample, Methyl yellow try, Voges-Proskauer take to, Citrate shot, Oxidase make sure Urease sample).


Out of 62 participants, 87% believed that the stethoscope is a potential source of carrying infections from one individual to other. Thirty-three individuals (%) had never cleaned their stethoscopes, 15 (24.2%) cleaned their stethoscopes > 8 weeks previously, two (3.2%) cleaned their stethoscopes 5–8 weeks previously, six (9.6%) cleaned their stethoscopes 1–4 weeks previously and only six (9.6%) individuals had cleaned their stethoscopes < 1 week ago. None of the participants cleaned their stethoscopes after seeing each patient. Among the individuals who cleaned their stethoscopes, only one participant cleaned his/her stethoscope daily. Among the individuals who cleaned their stethoscopes, the majority (86.2%, participants) used alcohol-based disinfectant (Sterillium), followed by a plain cloth (10.3%, 3/29 participants) and soap and water (3.5%, 1/29 participants).

Every initially swab examples extracted from the new 62 stethoscopes presented microbial increases. The newest samples extracted from thirty-five stethoscope bells and you may 31 stethoscope diaphragms exhibited combined progress. With the stethoscope bells, 96 organisms was isolated and this composed of 7 some other genera. Out of the 96 bacteria separated off stethoscope bells, 80 was basically Gram-confident cocci (GPC) and sixteen were Gram-bad bacilli (GNB). One of many 96 isolates, 25 was indeed possibly pathogenic as well as the other individuals was body commensals. To the stethoscope diaphragm, all in all, 92 bacteria was basically separated spanning 7 other genera. From the 96 organisms remote away from stethoscope diaphragm, 79 have been GPC and 13 was indeed GNB. Among the ninety five isolates, twenty two was basically probably pathogenic and the remaining isolates have been epidermis commensals. Probably pathogenic isolates was S. aureus, Acinetobacter spp. and you will K. pneumoniae.

Immediately after clean up which have an alcohol-based disinfectant, K. pneumoniae is actually separated from one of your own stethoscope bells christianconnection used in an ICU, while on the brand new diaphragm of your stethoscope found in an enthusiastic ICU, a few strains out of K. pneumoniae and another Coagulase-bad staphylococcus (CoNS) was isolated as well as 2 stresses regarding Cons was in fact isolated on the stethoscopes out-of medical children.

Out of 62 stethoscopes, twenty-five had possibly pathogenic bacterial development prior to cleanup stethoscopes which have alcoholic beverages-founded disinfectant. Although not, immediately following washing the stethoscopes, only a few got pathogenic growth of isolates. 01.